Spring Boot

Spring Data JPAで楽観ロックを実装する

はじめに

Spring Data JPAを利用した楽観ロックの方法を紹介します。

本記事で使用するテーブル定義は次の通りです。

物理名 論理名 データ型 NOT NULL 説明
id ID BIGINT 主キー(AUTO_INCREMENT)
name 名前 VARCHAR(100) ユーザーの名前
version バージョン BIGINT 楽観ロック用カラム

■CREATE文

CREATE TABLE `sampledb`.`lock_test` (
  `id` BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
  `version` BIGINT NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`));

Spring Data JPAで楽観ロックを実装する方法

エンティティに「@Version」を定義する

JPAで楽観ロックを実装するのは非常に簡単です。エンティティクラスに「@Version」アノテーションを付けたフィールドを追加するだけです。

package com.example.demo.entity;

import java.io.Serializable;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;
import javax.persistence.Version;

import lombok.Data;

@Entity
@Data
@Table(name = "lock_test")
public class LockTest implements Serializable {
    /**
     * ID
     */
    @Id
    @Column(name = "id")
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;

    /**
     * 名前
     */
    @Column(name = "name")
    private String name;

    /**
     * バージョン
     */
    @Version
    @Column(name = "version")
    private Long version;
}

特定のフィールドに@Versionが付いたフィールドを追加すると、自動的に楽観的ロックが適用されます。

@Versionを適用することができるデータ型は以下の通りです。

  • int
  • Integer
  • short
  • Short
  • long
  • Long
  • java.sql.Timestamp

数値でバージョンを管理するか、更新日時でバージョンを管理するかのどちらかです。

スポンサーリンク

楽観ロックの動作確認

それでは、次のサンプルクラスを使って楽観ロックの動作確認を行います。

  1. sampleUpdateメソッドを実行
  2. 別のスレッドでsampleUpdate2メソッドを実行
package com.example.demo.service;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

import com.example.demo.entity.LockTest;
import com.example.demo.repository.LockTestRepository;

@Service
public class LockTestService {

    @Autowired
    private LockTestRepository lockTestRepository;

    /**
    * 更新処理 (スリープあり)
    * @param id 更新対象のID
    * @throws InterruptedException 例外
    */
    @Transactional
    public void sampleUpdate(Long id) throws InterruptedException {

        LockTest lockTest = lockTestRepository.findById(id).get();
        lockTest.setName("変更" + lockTest.getVersion());

        // 10秒間待機
        Thread.sleep(10000);

        lockTestRepository.save(lockTest);
    }

    /**
     * 更新処理
     * @param id 更新対象のID
     */
    @Transactional
    public void sampleUpdate2(Long id) {

        LockTest lockTest = lockTestRepository.findById(Long.valueOf(1)).get();
        lockTest.setName("変更2" +  + lockTest.getVersion());

        lockTestRepository.save(lockTest);
    }
}

 

上記の処理を順番に実行した結果、楽観ロックが発生しました。

org.hibernate.StaleStateException: Batch update returned unexpected row count from update [0]; actual row count: 0; expected: 1; statement executed: update lock_test set name=?, version=? where id=? and version=?
at org.hibernate.jdbc.Expectations$BasicExpectation.checkBatched(Expectations.java:67) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.jdbc.Expectations$BasicExpectation.verifyOutcome(Expectations.java:54) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.batch.internal.NonBatchingBatch.addToBatch(NonBatchingBatch.java:47) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.persister.entity.AbstractEntityPersister.update(AbstractEntityPersister.java:3571) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.persister.entity.AbstractEntityPersister.updateOrInsert(AbstractEntityPersister.java:3438) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.persister.entity.AbstractEntityPersister.update(AbstractEntityPersister.java:3852) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.action.internal.EntityUpdateAction.execute(EntityUpdateAction.java:201) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.engine.spi.ActionQueue.executeActions(ActionQueue.java:604) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.engine.spi.ActionQueue.lambda$executeActions$1(ActionQueue.java:478) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at java.base/java.util.LinkedHashMap.forEach(LinkedHashMap.java:684) ~[na:na]
at org.hibernate.engine.spi.ActionQueue.executeActions(ActionQueue.java:475) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.event.internal.AbstractFlushingEventListener.performExecutions(AbstractFlushingEventListener.java:344) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.event.internal.DefaultFlushEventListener.onFlush(DefaultFlushEventListener.java:40) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.event.service.internal.EventListenerGroupImpl.fireEventOnEachListener(EventListenerGroupImpl.java:107) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.internal.SessionImpl.doFlush(SessionImpl.java:1407) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.internal.SessionImpl.managedFlush(SessionImpl.java:489) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.internal.SessionImpl.flushBeforeTransactionCompletion(SessionImpl.java:3290) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.internal.SessionImpl.beforeTransactionCompletion(SessionImpl.java:2425) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.internal.JdbcCoordinatorImpl.beforeTransactionCompletion(JdbcCoordinatorImpl.java:449) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.resource.transaction.backend.jdbc.internal.JdbcResourceLocalTransactionCoordinatorImpl.beforeCompletionCallback(JdbcResourceLocalTransactionCoordinatorImpl.java:183) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.resource.transaction.backend.jdbc.internal.JdbcResourceLocalTransactionCoordinatorImpl.access$300(JdbcResourceLocalTransactionCoordinatorImpl.java:40) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.resource.transaction.backend.jdbc.internal.JdbcResourceLocalTransactionCoordinatorImpl$TransactionDriverControlImpl.commit(JdbcResourceLocalTransactionCoordinatorImpl.java:281) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.hibernate.engine.transaction.internal.TransactionImpl.commit(TransactionImpl.java:101) ~[hibernate-core-5.6.9.Final.jar:5.6.9.Final]
at org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager.doCommit(JpaTransactionManager.java:562) ~[spring-orm-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.transaction.support.AbstractPlatformTransactionManager.processCommit(AbstractPlatformTransactionManager.java:743) ~[spring-tx-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.transaction.support.AbstractPlatformTransactionManager.commit(AbstractPlatformTransactionManager.java:711) ~[spring-tx-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.transaction.interceptor.TransactionAspectSupport.commitTransactionAfterReturning(TransactionAspectSupport.java:654) ~[spring-tx-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.transaction.interceptor.TransactionAspectSupport.invokeWithinTransaction(TransactionAspectSupport.java:407) ~[spring-tx-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.transaction.interceptor.TransactionInterceptor.invoke(TransactionInterceptor.java:119) ~[spring-tx-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.aop.framework.ReflectiveMethodInvocation.proceed(ReflectiveMethodInvocation.java:186) ~[spring-aop-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.aop.framework.CglibAopProxy$CglibMethodInvocation.proceed(CglibAopProxy.java:763) ~[spring-aop-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.aop.framework.CglibAopProxy$DynamicAdvisedInterceptor.intercept(CglibAopProxy.java:708) ~[spring-aop-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at com.example.demo.service.LockTestService$$EnhancerBySpringCGLIB$$c70ca573.sampleUpdate(<generated>) ~[classes/:na]
at com.example.demo.control.LockTestControl.display(LockTestControl.java:19) ~[classes/:na]
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) ~[na:na]
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62) ~[na:na]
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43) ~[na:na]
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:566) ~[na:na]
at org.springframework.web.method.support.InvocableHandlerMethod.doInvoke(InvocableHandlerMethod.java:205) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.method.support.InvocableHandlerMethod.invokeForRequest(InvocableHandlerMethod.java:150) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.ServletInvocableHandlerMethod.invokeAndHandle(ServletInvocableHandlerMethod.java:117) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.invokeHandlerMethod(RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.java:895) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.handleInternal(RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.java:808) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.AbstractHandlerMethodAdapter.handle(AbstractHandlerMethodAdapter.java:87) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:1067) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:963) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:1006) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:898) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:655) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:4.0.FR]
at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:883) ~[spring-webmvc-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:764) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:4.0.FR]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:227) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:53) ~[tomcat-embed-websocket-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.springframework.web.filter.RequestContextFilter.doFilterInternal(RequestContextFilter.java:100) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.springframework.web.filter.FormContentFilter.doFilterInternal(FormContentFilter.java:93) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:201) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.21.jar:5.3.21]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:197) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:97) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:541) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:135) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:92) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:78) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:360) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service(Http11Processor.java:399) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProcessorLight.process(AbstractProcessorLight.java:65) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$ConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:890) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(NioEndpoint.java:1787) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SocketProcessorBase.run(SocketProcessorBase.java:49) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1191) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:659) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.64.jar:9.0.64]
at java.base/java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:834) ~[na:na]